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Gold is measured in many ways but for some reason this precious metal is weighed in a system of measurements called "Troy Measurements" which is used internationally.
Troy measurements are such that one pound (lb) is divided up into 12 Troy Ounces
and each Troy Ounce is divided up into 20 units called Pennyweight (dwt).

Click HERE to get All the Info on "Troy Measurements"
Get the complete breakdown and FACTS: Troy Pound, Troy Ounce, Conversion Formulas, pennyweight (dwt), Grams, Gram-Calorie (mean), Grains, Dram or Drachm, Momme, Imperial System, GO HERE to get All the Info!

One of the most useful ways to calculate your gold's value is to use the precious metals Gold Calculator that is available on Gold Calculator web site. It calculates the value using the current price of the metal you are interested in.

GOLD! Since the beginning of recorded history, gold has played a significant role in society. In the ancient world, gold ornaments were used in religious rituals symbolizing power, light and life. Over the centuries it has remained the "noblest of metals," the ultimate currency and the only universally accepted means of exchange. Other Names for Gold: Oro, Tesoro is an element, meaning it contains gold only and is not a mixture of other elements or substances. Gold is a pure metal, it does not oxidize in air like iron (rust) or copper (tarnish). Furthermore gold is very resistant to acids and is hardly affected by these. In the nature, gold is found as flakes or nuggets in rivers, but also as veins in the bedrock. There is however one acid that will affect gold. This acid is a mixture of 1 part Nitric Acid and 3 parts Hydrochloric Acid. Gold can also under certain circumstances dissolve in Natruim- or Calium cyanide. These chemicals are very dangerous.

Gold has a hardness of 2.5 on Moh's scale, where Lead has 1. Gold has the highest malleability of all metals. One gram of Gold can be pulled to a thread up to 3000 meters, with a diameter of 0.00012 millimeter! Gold can also be hammered to a thin sheet of a thickness of 0.0001 millimeter. Gold leaf is so thin that even light will penetrate through.

Gold is one of the heaviest metals. The specific gravity equals 19.32 meaning if you filled a 1 liter milk carton it would weigh 19.32 kilo. Gold is twice as heavy as lead.
The Latin name for Gold is AURUM - which means morning blush - and from there it has got its chemical letters Au.

Gold crystals are cubic. But in the nature gold crystals are very rare. Flakes and nuggets that are panned have soft edges and are also flattened. The electric characteristics for gold are also unique.

Gold can be alloyed with other metals, this will make the gold harder. The most common used metals are copper or silver.

The Gold price is calculated on a daily basis on the big stock markets in London, Tokyo and New York, the price is $ / troy ounce. Most of the gold that is found will be made into jewellery. Some of it is also used within the detail industry and the rest is used within the electronic industry.

In air, gold weighs 6-7 times more than sand and gravel. But in water it is 10-11 times as heavy. Archimedes can explained this in more detail. The average contents of gold is 3.5 milligram / ton. A natural flake, approximately 0.6 millimeter in diameter weighs approximately 3.5 milligram. Our planet contains approximately 21,000,000,000,000 ton's of gold. It is a lot from the earth surface down to 36 kilometers depth. There is approx. 84,000,000,000 ton's. One kilometer cube contains 3.5 kilo.

At the moment there is about 100,000 ton's of gold out on the market. This is what has been recovered so far......This equals a cube with sides of 17x17x17 meters.
A nugget found in Australia "Holtermann nugget" weight 285 kilo, of which 214 kilo was gold.

  1. Periodic Table and Technical information:
    Atomic Number =79
    Atomic Weight =196.9665 g/atom
    Density (at 293 K) =19.32 g/cm3
    Melting Point =1337.33 degrees Kelvin
    Melting point =2,063 degrees Fahrenheit
    Specific gravity is 19.32
    Tensile strength =19,000psi
    Hardness =2.75 on Mohs scale
    Is one of the "Transition Metals" Boiling Point =2807.8 C (1337.59 K)
    Modulus of Elasticity =79 G Pa
    Brinell Hardness (annealed to 1031 K) =25 kgf/mm2
    Reflectance at 0.40 um =38.7%
    Reflectance at 0.55 um =81.6%
    Reflectance at 0.70 um =96.7%
    Relectance at 1.00 um =98.1%
    Thermal Expansion (from 273 to 373 K) =1.416 x 10^-7 K-1
    Thermal Conductivity (at 273 K) =3.144 W/cm x K
    Electrical resistivity (at 273 K) =2.05 x 10^-6 ohm x cm
    Heat of Fusion =1.268 x 104 J/g-atom
    Heat of Evaporation (at 298 K) =3.653 x 105 J/g-atom
    Heat Capacity at 298 K =0.1288 J/g x K
    Magnetic Moment =0.1439 N x m
    Standard Oxidation Potential (Au to Au+ + e) =-1.68 V
    Total Emissivity (from 493 to 893 K) =0.018 to 0.035

  2. Properties of Gold:
    Out of the earth comes a remarkable metal with an unparalleled combination of chemical and physical properties that make this metal invaluable to a wide range of everyday applications essential to our modern life. Thousands of common, everyday appliances require gold to ensure perfect performance over a long period of time. This indestructible metal is completely recyclable and virtually immune to the effects of air, water, and oxygen. Gold will not tarnish, rust, or corrode. This unique combination of properties makes gold a vital component in many medical, industrial, and electrical applications.

    Gold is the most non-reactive of all metals. It is benign in all natural and industrial environments. Gold never reacts with oxygen (one of the most active elements), which means it will not rust or tarnish. The gold death-mask in the tomb of Tutankhamun looked as brilliant when it was unearthed in 1922 as when it was entombed in 1352 BC.

    Gold is among the most electrically conductive of all metals. Since electricity is essentially the flow of charged particles in a current, metals that are conductive allow this current to flow unimpeded. Gold is able to convey even a tiny electrical current in temperatures varying from -55° to +200° centigrade. This makes gold a vital component for electrical connectors in computers and telecommunications equipment.

    Gold is the most ductile of all metals, allowing it to be drawn out into tiny wires or threads without breaking. As a result, a single ounce of gold can be drawn into a wire five miles long. Gold's malleability is also unparalleled. It can be shaped or extended into extraordinarily thin sheets. For example, one ounce of gold can be hammered into a 100 square-foot sheet.

    Gold is the most reflective and least absorptive material of infrared (or heat) energy. High purity gold reflects up to 99% of infrared rays. This makes gold ideal for heat and radiation reflection, as in life-saving face shields for astronauts and firefighters.

    Gold is also an excellent conductor of thermal energy or heat. Since many electronic processes create heat, gold is necessary to transfer heat away from delicate instruments. For example, a 35% gold alloy is used in the main engine nozzle of the Space Shuttle, where temperatures can reach 3300° centigrade. Gold alloy is the most tenacious and long-performing material available for protection at these temperatures.

  8. Gold Filled:
    If an item is described as "gold filled", or "gold overlay", that means that a layer of at least 10-karat gold permanently bonded by heat and pressure to one or more surfaces of a support metal, then rolled or drawn to a prescribed thickness. The karat gold must be at least 1/10 by weight of the total metal content.
  9. Rolled Gold Plate:
    Material consisting of a layer of plating of 10-karat gold or better which is mechanically bonded to a base metal. The karat gold content may be less than 1/20 but must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content.
  10. Vermeil:
    Gold at least 15- micro-inches thick, bonded to sterling silver by an electrolytic or mechanical process.
  11. Gold Leaf:
    Pure gold that is pounded into sheets applied to other surfaces by hand. Usually about 3 micro-inches thick.
    is not gold at all. It is a gold colored mineral found in other rocks like gold often is. It is really iron pyrite and in relation to gold is worthless.
    This is an expression that has entered popular language and means the final proof, or undeniable. It comes from the need to be able to quickly and positively determine not only if an item is truly gold or not, but also what karat it is. One of gold's enduring qualities is that it does not tarnish or oxidize easily. Nitric acid does affect gold and when applied in different concentrations, can provide nearly infallible answers to questions of karat.
  14. The letter "P":
    may be found following the karat designation on a jewelry item, i.e. 14KP. This stands for the word plumb, which in this instance is an indication that the gold content is no less than 14-Karat. An item may be legally stamped with a karat designation as long as it is within a specific range, but to carry the "P", it must be no less than what is stamped on it.
Purity: The purity of gold articles may be described in three ways:

Karat, meaning parts of gold per 24
meaning parts of gold per 100
Fineness, meaning parts of gold per 1,000 (European System)
Karat System Percentage of Gold European System
24 karat 100% 1000 fine
22 karat 91.7% 917 fine
18 karat 75.0% 750 fine
14 karat 58.3% 583 fine
10 karat 41.6% 416 fine
Legal Minimum
10k gold is the minimum amount of gold that a product can be composed of and carry the label "gold", according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission Guides to the Jewelry Industry.
In France, Italy and Switzerland, 18k is the lowest permissible standard to be called gold. England accepts 9k gold, while in some ocuntries of the world, 8k is the legal minimum standard.
Au Gold, Ag Silver, Cu Copper, Zn Zinc, Ni Nickel, Ti Titanium, Pd Palladium, Fe Iron, Si Silicon, B Boron and Co Cobalt
Colors of Gold:
A mixture of silver and copper in the gold will highlight its colour. Too much silver will give a green tinge. Green is the opposite colour to gold on the colour spectrum and collectively large amounts of gold will give off a green aura. Too much copper will give a red tinge (rose gold) and the addition of even a little Nickel will overpower the colour of gold to silver, hence white gold is made.
In medieval Europe, alchemists mixed powdered gold into drinks to "comfort sore limbs," one of the earliest references to arthritis.

Gold's power to relieve the pain of arthritis passed down through the centuries. Its mysterious efficacy has been confirmed by modern medical research. Today it is widely used in combination with other compounds in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

In ancient Rome, gold salves were used for the treatment of skin ulcers. Today, gold leaf plays an important role in the treatment of chronic ulcers.

As long as 4,500 years ago, the Egyptians used gold in dentistry. Remarkable examples of the artistry of these early orthodontists have been found, perfectly preserved, by archaeologists of our own time. Today, American dentists use some 13 tons of gold each year for crowns, bridges, inlays and dentures. The reason? Gold is non-toxic, it can be shaped easily, and it is tough -- it never wears, corrodes or tarnishes.

The use of gold in modern medicine began around 1890, when the distinguished German bacteriologist Robert Koch discovered that compounds made with gold inhibited growth of the bacillus that caused tuberculosis. His work was honored with the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

Today, medical uses of gold have expanded greatly. It is used in surgery to patch damaged blood vessels, nerves, bones and membranes. And it is used in the treatment of several forms of cancer. Injection of microscopic gold pellets helps retard prostate cancer in men. Women with ovarian cancer are treated with colloidal gold. And gold vapor lasers help seek out and destroy cancerous cells without harming their healthy neighbors.

Gold has become an important biomedical tool for scientists studying why the body behaves as it does. By attaching a molecular marker to a microscopic piece of gold, scientists can follow its movement through the body. And because gold is readily visible under an electron microscope, scientists now, for the first time, can see whether and where a reaction takes place in an individual cell.

Some researchers are placing gold on DNA to study the hybrid genetic material in cells. Others are using it to determine how cells respond to toxins, heat and physical stress.

Because it is biologically benign, biochemists use gold to form compounds with proteins to create new lifesaving drugs. One experimental new gold compound blocks virus replication in infected cells. It is being tested for the treatment of AIDS.

Every day, surgeons use gold instruments to clear coronary arteries, and gold-coated lasers literally give new life to patients with once inoperable heart conditions and tumors.

Around the world, the unique qualities of gold are helping millions of people live longer, healthier and more productive lives.

Copyright ©1996 The Gold Institute, Washington DC ,U.S.A. All rights reserved.
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